Thứ Hai, 11 tháng 1, 2016

List of architectural styles

An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable and historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of constructionbuilding materials, and regional character. Most architecture can be classified as a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions, beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible.
Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society and are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, and when a style changes it usually does so gradually, as architects learn and adapt to new ideas. Styles often spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist. A style may also spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. After a style has gone out of fashion, there are often revivals and re-interpretations. For instance, classicism has been revived many times and found new life as neoclassicism. Each time it is revived, it is different.
Vernacular architecture works slightly differently and is listed separately. It is the native method of construction used by local people, usually using labour-intensive methods and local materials, and usually for small structures such as rural cottages. It varies from region to region even within a country, and takes little account of national styles or technology. As western society has developed, vernacular styles have mostly become outmoded by new technology and national building standards.



Chronology of styles[edit]


Early civilizations developed, often independently, in scattered locations around the globe. The architecture was often a mixture of styles in timber cut from local forests and stone hewn from local rocks. Most of the timber has gone, although the earthworks remain. Impressive, massive stone structures have survived for years.

Ancient Americas[edit]

Mediterranean and Middle-East Civilizations[edit]

Ancient Near East and Mesopotamia[edit]

Iranian and Persian[edit]

Ancient Asian[edit]


Historic temple styles[edit]



Classical Antiquity[edit]

The architecture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, derived from the ancient Mediterranean civilisations such as at Knossos on Crete. They developed highly refined systems for proportions and style, using mathematics and geometry.

The Dark Ages[edit]

The European "Dark Ages" are generally taken to run from the end of the Roman Empire, circa around 400 AD, to around 1000 AD. Relatively little is known of this period, but Christianity (spread by the Romans) was already making a significant impact on European culture, and the Romans left a technological and social legacy.


Medieval Europe[edit]

The dominance of the Church over everyday life was expressed in grand spiritual designs which emphasized piety and sobriety. The Romanesque style was simple and austere. The Gothic style heightened the effect with heavenly spires, pointed arches and religious carvings.[1]


Associated styles[edit]


Asian architecture contemporary with the Dark Ages and medieval Europe[edit]



Dravidian and Vesara temple styles (India)[edit]

Other Indian styles[edit]


American architecture contemporary with the Dark and Middle Ages[edit]

The Renaissance and its successors[edit]

1425-1660. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread through Europe, rebelling against the all-powerful Church, by placing Man at the centre of his world instead of God.[2]The Gothic spires and pointed arches were replaced by classical domes and rounded arches, with comfortable spaces and entertaining details, in a celebration of humanity. The Baroque style was a florid development of this 200 years later, largely by the Catholic Church to restate its religious values.[3]

United Kingdom[edit]

Spain and Portugal[edit]



Asian architecture contemporary with Renaissance and post-Renaissance Europe[edit]




1720-1837 and onwards. A time often depicted as a rural idyll by the great painters, but in fact was a hive of early industrial activity, with small kilns and workshops springing up wherever materials could be mined or manufactured. After the Renaissance, neoclassical forms were developed and refined into new styles for public buildings and the gentry.


Revivalism and Orientalism[edit]

Revivals started before the Victorian Era[edit]

Victorian revivals[edit]


Revivals in North America[edit]

Other late 19th century styles[edit]

Rural styles[edit]

Reactions to the Industrial Revolution[edit]

Arts and Crafts in Europe[edit]

Arts and Crafts in the US[edit]

Modernism and other styles contemporary with modernism[edit]

Modernism under communism[edit]


Post-Second World War[edit]

Other 20th century styles[edit]

Post-Modernism and early 21st century styles[edit]

Fortified styles[edit]

Vernacular styles[edit]

Generic methods[edit]


North American[edit]

Native American[edit]

South American[edit]




Alphabetical listing[edit]

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